In this way, the Southeast of Asia is still one of the most important destinations in the world for Chinese migrants, but at the same time, other countries such as the US, Australia or New Zealand have gained momentum and constitute nowadays big Chinese overseas hubs of economic power. Aller à la navigation. Ressources de géographie pour les enseignants, Ressources pour les concours (Capes, agrégations, ENS...), Géographie en langues étrangères (DNL allemand, anglais, italien, espagnol), « Les populations d'origine indienne hors de l'Inde : fabrique et enjeux d'une "diaspora" », "Phénomène diasporique, transnationalisme, lieux et territoires", La Chine, la modernisation encadrée d'un territoire global, Les relations nature-sociétés face au changement global, Le développement durable, approches géographiques, La frontière, discontinuités et dynamiques, Le vin entre sociétés, marchés et territoires, Les espaces littoraux : gestion, protection, aménagement, Les nouvelles dynamiques du tourisme dans le monde, Fait religieux et construction de l'espace, Géographie de la santé : espaces et sociétés, Remue-méninges, conférences de 2001 à 2003, Territoires européens : régions, États, Union, Les espaces ruraux et périurbains en France : populations, activités, mobilités, Le Japon : les fragilités d'une puissance, États-Unis : espaces de la puissance, espaces en crises, Afrique subsaharienne : territoires et conflits, La Chine entre espaces domestiques et espace mondial, La Russie : des territoires en recomposition, La Méditerranée, une géographie paradoxale, Lyon, espaces et échelles d’une métropole européenne, Les mondes arctiques, espaces, milieux, sociétés. The word ‘Chinese’ can refer to the citizenry of a country, a race, a language, and even a culture, ambiguities that the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) exploits in order to appeal to the diaspora via the sentimental heartstrings of heritage via ‘flesh and blood’. Consequently, Southern European countries have been the main focus of Chinese migration for the past 30 years. By Emmanuel Ma Mung. He is the author of The Sea of Learning: Mobility and Identity in Nineteenth-Century Guangzhou (Harvard University Asia Center, 2006), Upriver Journeys: Diaspora and Empire in Southern China, 1570-1850 (Harvard University Asia Center, 2017), and Chinese Diasporas: A Social History of Global Migration (Cambridge University Press, 2020). Though they form a small part of the overseas Chinese population, the Chinese diaspora of France represents the largest overseas Chinese community in Europe. Out of 40 million overseas Chinese, 30 million are found here, making up about 10% of the population in Southeast Asia (Chee-Beng Tan, 2013). the economic power of the chinese diaspora. In the UK it is estimated at around 630,000 (Latham, 2011). The authors believe that diaspora communities play a very important role in not only the economic development of a country but also in the growth of international influence in an increasingly globalized world. ln the United States of America, we can still find important migratory movements from Chinese citizens, particularly in larger cities such as San Francisco (Migration Expert, 2011). Rural-urban mobility, the polarization of the distribution of wealth and the consequent widening of the gap between rich and poor are all relevant factors for this migration. Aller au contenu. In the last decades we have been witnessing a new migrant phase, characterized by skilled and knowledgeable Chinese citizens with still strong ties with the motherland. Over the past decade, Chinese citizens have emerged as the fastest-growing ethnic minority in Russia and they represent the fourth biggest ethnic group in this country. The estimated Chinese population in Europe is about 2.15 million (Gui, 2011) and the most striking point regarding migration from China to Europe are the rise in forms of irregular migration and the expansion of new channels of migration, especially student migration. Nevertheless Chinese citizens coming from urban areas, mainly from the city of Beijing, have begun to migrate. La durée est indispensable pour prouver la résistance à l’assimilation des migrants. Currently, the most popular destinations for Chinese migrants in Europe are considered to be the United Kingdom and Spain. The Chinese community in Canada is one of the largest overseas Chinese communities and is the second-largest in North America after the United States, and also the seventh-largest in the Chinese diaspora. islam et diaspora chinoise asiatique by wang gungwu. Over the past decade there has been an accelerating trend of Chinese migration in Europe. The main communities are in Selangor, with 1.45 million Chinese inhabitants, which constitute 29% of the entire population. La diaspora chinoise aujourd’hui . In 1995, Australia’s Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade published a 350-page report on overseas Chinese business networks, calling them ‘one of the main forces driving the dynamic growth that characterises the region’. The main Chinatown is in Luanda. The main settlement is in Johannesburg, where there are two Chinatowns and an estimated 350,000 Chinese residents (Cox, 2013). 2. For instance, a huge number of people around the world are celebrating the Chinese New Year or Chinese Spring Festival, which lasts several days. The competitiveness with Chinese migrants leads to tensions with the indigenous population; for example in Johannesburg, South Africa, cultural tensions are often felt between the black and Chinese communities, especially since Chinese business is often in direct competition with black business, which is heavily supported by the government’s Black Economic Empowerment Policy (BEE). By Thierry Sanjuan. She focuses especially on the media's role in communication, in fostering a sense of community, in defining different kinds of 'transnational Chineseness' - overseas Chinese communities are often very different from one country to another - … Half the Chinese community lives in Paris, which has three Chinatown districts: the 13th Arrondissement of Paris, the Belleville area and the Temple and Arts-et-Meriers area. The Chinese diaspora is one of the largest spreads populations amongst many countries around the world, which contributed in influencing the life of the indigenous population and sometimes raised challenges and competitions, both for the immigrants and the indigenous population. Le terme de diaspora vient du verbe grec speirein (semer) ou plus précisément du verbe composé diaspeirein (disséminer) et indique la dispersion d'une population. Diaspora chinoise. Between 1850 and the 1950s, a growing number of Chinese workers, mostly male peasants from coastal provinces, started leaving their homeland to seek employment opportunities in Southeast Asia. The amount of data we used describes within every continent in the world the main destination countries for Chinese immigrants and within those, the principal cities which host the largest Chinese diaspora settlements. Not only have Chinese migrants and their descendants developed unique histories and identities in the societies where they live, but they were already distinguished by dialect, region, class, type of migration, and nationality in their places of origin. A couple of figures can easily help to understand how deep these changes are. Résumé de l'exposé . Nowadays we all can benefit from advantages of the Chinese tradition such as medicine, science, design, technology, as well as benefit from the pleasure of Chinese food, cultural events and festivals. The biggest community in the continent can be found in South Africa, but smaller communities can be found in Tanzania, Zambia, Ghana, Nigeria, Angola, Mauritius, Madagascar and Algeria (Moban and Tan-Mullins, 2009). A good example of this forced migration can be considered to be the migration of Buddhist pilgrims to Central, Southern and Eastern Asia. Other relevant examples of Chinese diaspora communities formed in Asia, are Malaysia and Thailand. The economic power of the Chinese Diaspora. Engaging Australia’s Chinese diaspora 7 March 2018. The importance of the Chinese diaspora is widely recognized. As China continues to reinforce its relationship with Africa, mainly for economic reasons, Chinese citizens have started to migrate to the country and many more are expected to follow suit over the coming decades. In the introduction to the pioneering work on Chinese in Europe published in 1998, historian Frank Pieke comments on the relative invisibility of Chinese migrants. Such an occurrence would require an annual influx of about 250,000 to 300,000 Chinese, so far it is estimated that around 300,000 Chinese people live in Siberia, having primarily concentrated on areas like Khabarovsk, Vladivostok, and Ussuriysk (Repnikova, 2009). The main communities can be fo… China and India account for 35% of migrants in the world: more than 70 million people. In Asia, Singapore is the most important destination for the Chinese migrants, and it is also the most developed economic centre for this community, with a current overseas Chinese population of 2,832,510 living there. Written by Loretta Baldassar et al. While short episodes of Chinese migration can be traced back through history, the phenomenon generally referred to as “Chinese Diaspora” only dates back to the mid-19th century (Liu & Van Dongen, 2013). Despite Chinese contact with North America occurring as early as the 16th Century, there was not significant immigration until mid-way through the 19th Century. It will then go in depth into the influence, the challenges and the most important contributions of Chinese culture on the global community. French Chinese communities are the oldest communities in Europe. Wanning Sun examines the key role of the media in the Chinese diaspora. The largest community is in Sydney. [i] A quarter of a century later, the notion of an ‘invisible’ Chinese migrant in Italy is hard to fathom. Bringing Chinese diaspora from the margin of the Chinese culture to the core, such studies examine cultural products of Chinese diaspora in both local and global contexts. The diaspora communities of Chinese people are based mainly in Moscow’s Chinatown, where 15,000 Chinese citizens live nowadays (Zeihan, 2014). The Chinese migrant presence in the African region is proving ever more prominent and important. In fact, Chinese migration abroad has several implications, particularly on the economics, politics and culture. Today 376,584 Chinese-born migrants live in the State of New York (McCabe, 2012). Only in the last decades of the century, in the period of globalization, have constant and increasing transnational diasporic activitie… In south-east Asia, Chinese migrants dominate business despite forming only a small minority of the population, controlling around 60% of the region’s private corporate wealth (Xing, 2008). Other regions where communities are situated are Pretoria and Port Elizabeth. The number of Chinese migrants in Nigeria has grown exponentially since 1999, including not only Chinese citizens, but also Taiwanese and people from Hong Kong. The history of the Chinese diaspora in the United States is long and complex. Guangdong y Hainan still represents the majority of the newly-constituted Chinese Diasporas. In 2010 Chinese people living in the USA accounted for 37.6%, of the population. For instance, in Malaysia, the Chinatowns are principally based in the city of Selangor with over 5,460,000 Chinese living there, whereas in Thailand Bangkok has the biggest Chinatown with over 7,221,000 Chinese citizens based there (Tébar Arjona, 2013). Traditionally, they form big communities to enhance relations within their members and feel at home in a new country. Report a problem. & Wu 2013). Dans un contexte de dissémination mondiale, en position d'exterritorialité, la diaspora revêt deux caractères morphologiques : 1. multipolaire, 2. interpolaire du fait des relations entre le foyer d'origine (la Chine territoriale) et les foyers d'accueil. Des territoires de destination choisis en raison de la constitution de chaînes migratoires qui relient les migrants à ceux qui sont déjà installés dans les pays d’accueil.