[380] Turkey hosts the largest number of refugees in the world, including 3.6 million Syrian refugees, as of April 2020. [401] However, AKP policies have also caused an increase in interest and support for secularism in Turkey. Following the restoration of constitutional monarchy with the Young Turk Revolution in 1908, theatrical activities increased and social problems began to be reflected at the theatre as well as in historical plays. The European section of Turkey, also known as East Thrace (Turkish: Trakya) is located at the easternmost edge the Balkan peninsula. The history of its designs, motifs and ornaments thus reflects the political and ethnic history and diversity of Asia minor. [432], The history of Judaism in Turkey dates back to the Romaniote Jews of Anatolia, who have been present since at least the 5th century BC. Depuis elle est partagée entre un soutien à l’ANAP et au parti islamiste. Certains musulmans sunnites adhèrent à des confréries dont l’existence est semi-officielle : Les trois quarts d’entre eux sont musulmans sunnites et un quart, alévis (une branche du chiisme). Franc-Maçonnerie, Carboneria et confréries soufies Die Schweiz kandidiert für einen nichtständigen Sitz im UNO-Sicherheitsrat in den Jahren 2023-2024. There are 600 members of parliament who are elected for a four-year term by a party-list proportional representation system from 85 electoral districts. [237], On 20 May 2016, the Turkish parliament stripped almost a quarter of its members of immunity from prosecution, including 101 deputies from the pro-Kurdish HDP and the main opposition CHP party. [109], The reforms, combined with unprecedented amounts of funding from foreign loans, spurred rapid economic growth; but this growth was punctuated by sharp recessions and financial crises in 1994, 1999 (following the earthquake in Izmit that year),[302] and 2001;[303] resulting in an average of 4 percent GDP growth per annum between 1981 and 2003. Arménie [53], The House of Seljuk originated from the Kınık branch of the Oghuz Turks who resided on the periphery of the Muslim world, in the Yabgu Khaganate of the Oğuz confederacy, to the north of the Caspian and Aral Seas, in the 9th century. [479] Buildings from this era are the Grand Post Office in Istanbul (1905–1909), Tayyare Apartments (1919–1922),[480] Istanbul 4th Vakıf Han (1911–1926),[481] State Art and Sculpture Museum (1927–1930),[482] Ethnography Museum of Ankara (1925–1928),[483] the first Ziraat Bank headquarters in Ankara (1925–1929),[484] the first Türkiye İş Bankası headquarters in Ankara (1926–1929),[485] Bebek Mosque,[486] and Kamer Hatun Mosque. [266][267], There are 40 national parks, 189 nature parks, 31 nature preserve areas, 80 wildlife protection areas and 109 nature monuments in Turkey such as Gallipoli Peninsula Historical National Park, Mount Nemrut National Park, Ancient Troya National Park, Ölüdeniz Nature Park and Polonezköy Nature Park.[268]. [218][219] Many judgments are related to cases such as civilian deaths in aerial bombardments,[230] torturing,[231] forced displacements,[232] destroyed villages,[233][234][235] arbitrary arrests,[236] murdered and disappeared Kurdish journalists, activists and politicians. Another revolution in Turkish poetry came about in 1941 with the Garip movement led by Orhan Veli, Oktay Rıfat and Melih Cevdet. Les Alévis : Les alévis. The decline of the Ottoman Empire led to a rise in nationalist sentiment among its various subject peoples, leading to increased ethnic tensions which occasionally burst into violence, such as the Hamidian massacres of Armenians.[73]. Yüzyış ve XX. When three powers (executive, legislative and judiciary) are taken into account as the main functions of the state, local administrations have little power. The women's national volleyball team won the gold medal at the 2015 European Games, the silver medal at the 2003 European Championship, the bronze medal at the 2011 European Championship, and the bronze medal at the 2012 FIVB World Grand Prix. [204], Turkey has the second-largest standing military force in NATO, after the US Armed Forces, with an estimated strength of 495,000 deployable forces, according to a 2011 NATO estimate. La tradition laïque turque fait que la religion n’occupe pas dans la société une place aussi centrale que dans d’autres pays musulmans. Turkish government companies for research and development in military technologies include Turkish Aerospace Industries, ASELSAN, HAVELSAN, ROKETSAN, MKE, among others. Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye [ˈtyɾcije]), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti [ˈtyɾcije dʒumˈhuːɾijeti] (listen)), is a transcontinental country located mainly on the Anatolian Peninsula in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeastern Europe. With an estimated nominal gross domestic product of $744 billion ($8,958 per capita) and $2.4 trillion ($28,264 p.c.) won the 1995–96 FIBA Korać Cup, were the runners-up of the 2018–19 EuroLeague and the 1992–93 FIBA Saporta Cup, and finished third at the 1999–2000 EuroLeague and the 2000–01 SuproLeague. Turkey has an average population density of 97 people per km². The Administrative Code bears similarities with its French counterpart, and the Penal Code with its Italian counterpart. In the 21st century some reforms have taken place to improve the cultural rights of ethnic minorities in Turkey, such as the establishment of TRT Kurdî, TRT Arabi and TRT Avaz by the TRT. "[409] Now greatly increased in size, the Diyanet promotes a certain type of conservative (Hanafi Sunni) Islam inside Turkey, issuing fetva that disapprove of activities such as "feeding dogs at home, celebrating the western New Year, lotteries, and tattoos"[410] [259] Southeastern Turkey is located within the northern plains of Upper Mesopotamia. also driven by the European Charter of Local Self-Government and with Chapter 22 ("Regional Policy & Coordination of Structural Instruments") of the acquis of the European Union. During the first six decades of the republic, between 1923 and 1983, Turkey generally adhered to a quasi-statist approach with strict government planning of the budget and government-imposed limitations over foreign trade, flow of foreign currency, foreign direct investment and private sector participation in certain fields (such as broadcasting, telecommunications, energy, mining, etc.). En juillet 2000, N. Erbakan est condamné à la prison pour « incitation à la haine raciale et religieuse ». The Turkish Space Launch System (UFS) is a project to develop the satellite launch capability of Turkey. The Ottomans completed their conquest of the Byzantine Empire by capturing its capital, Constantinople, in 1453: their commander thenceforth being known as Mehmed the Conqueror. Le gouvernement assure en permanence la sécurité et la protection des synagogues. [340], Water supply and sanitation in Turkey is characterised by achievements and challenges. Il a fallu les victoires électorales des islamistes en 1994 et 1995, et la formation du gouvernement de Necmettin Erbakan en 1996, pour que l’armée, organisation tutélaire du régime turc, retrouve ses accents kémalistes et engage le combat contre les islamistes. The later "Group D" of artists led by Abidin Dino, Cemal Tollu, Fikret Mualla, Fahrünnisa Zeid, Bedri Rahmi Eyüboğlu, Adnan Çoker and Burhan Doğançay introduced some trends that had lasted in the West for more than three decades. - Les Süleymanci : à l’origine un réseau de cours coraniques clandestines dans les années 1950. Since the liberalisation of the Turkish economy in the 1980s, the country has enjoyed stronger economic growth and greater political stability. This mix originally began as a result of the encounter of Turks and their culture with those of the peoples who were in their path during their migration from Central Asia to the West. [393] However, there are no official governmental statistics specifying the religious beliefs of the Turkish people, nor is religious data recorded in the country's census. [362] The Kurds are concentrated in Turkish Kurdistan, making up a majority in the provinces of Ağrı, Batman, Bingöl, Bitlis, Diyarbakır, Elâzığ, Hakkari, Iğdır, Mardin, Muş, Siirt, Şırnak, Tunceli and Van; a near majority in Şanlıurfa Province (47%); and a large minority in Kars Province (20%). The judiciary is nominally independent from the executive and the legislature, but the constitutional changes that came into effect with the referendums in 2007, 2010 and 2017 gave larger powers to the President and the ruling party for appointing or dismissing judges and prosecutors. Following the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, some Kurdish and Zaza tribes, which were feudal (manorial) communities led by chieftains (agha) during the Ottoman period, became discontent about certain aspects of Atatürk's reforms aiming to modernise the country, such as secularism (the Sheikh Said rebellion, 1925)[92] and land reform (the Dersim rebellion, 1937–1938),[93] and staged armed revolts that were put down with military operations. Les maçons turcs ont joué un rôle important après la Première Guerre mondiale dans la construction de la République laïque de Mustafa Kemal. Acar collected information of people who sympathize with Fethullah Gülen at Netherlands and passed it on to the Turkish authorities. uniting the principalities and conquering the Balkans, Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated, rise in nationalist sentiment among its various subject peoples, population exchange between Greece and Turkey, military offensive into north-eastern Syria, European Charter of Local Self-Government, Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests, Gallipoli Peninsula Historical National Park, countries that have not ratified the Paris agreement on climate change, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Learn how and when to remove this template message, 51 World Heritage Sites in tentative list, largest carrier in the world by number of countries served, several other airlines operate in the country, science, technology and innovation policies in Turkey, Turkish Satellite Assembly, Integration and Test Center, TÜBİTAK Space Technologies Research Institute, headquartered in Constantinople (Istanbul), Times Higher Education World University Rankings, UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists, Ottoman conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul), UNESCO-listed intangible cultural heritage, 2010 FIVB Women's Club World Championship, 2013 FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship, 2017 FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship, Radio and Television Supreme Council (RTÜK), L'Arrivée d'un train en gare de La Ciotat, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, "Adrese Dayalı Nüfus Kayıt Sistemi Sonuçları, 2019", "Annual growth rate and population density of provinces by years, 2007–2015", "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020", "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income - EU-SILC survey", "Erdogan: Turkey will 'never accept' genocide charges", "The Political Economy of Regional Power: Turkey", "European Parliament votes to suspend Turkey's EU membership bid", "Search for the Indo-Europeans: Were Kurgan horsemen or Anatolian farmers responsible for creating and spreading the world's most far-flung language family? Other ethnic groups include Albanians, Arabs, Assyrians, Bosniaks, Circassians, Georgians, Laz, Pomaks, and Roma. Izmir - Smyrne, L’islam est la religion dominante : plus de 99 % des habitants de la Turquie sont issus d’une famille musulmane. En 1986, est promulguée une loi interdisant le blasphème sous peine de prison… [155][156][157][158] The Turkey 2015 report of the European Commission stated that "the independence of the judiciary and respect of the principle of separation of powers have been undermined and judges and prosecutors have been under strong political pressure. [269][270] The Eurasian lynx and the European wildcat are other felid species which are currently found in the forests of Turkey. The percentage of Christians in Turkey fell from 17.5% (three million followers) in a population of 16 million to 2.5% percent in the early 20th century. They followed closely the context of the book they were included in, more illustrations than standalone works of art. [274] The eastern part of that coast averages 2,200 millimetres (87 in) annually which is the highest precipitation in the country. [citation needed] Turkey's support for Northern Cyprus in the Cyprus dispute complicates Turkey's relations with the EU and remains a major stumbling block to the country's EU accession bid. Between 1923 and 2018, Turkey was a parliamentary representative democracy.