Coordinates: 40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4, – in Europe (green & dark grey)– in the European Union (green). Both offer a matchless number of attractions and their importance in commerce, education, entertainment, media, fashion, science, sports and arts contribute to their status as two of the world's major global cities. Historically, Sephardi Jews and Moriscos are the main minority groups originated in Spain and with a contribution to Spanish culture. [citation needed]. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy,[15] with King Felipe VI as head of state. a legislative assembly whose members must be elected by, a government council, with executive and administrative functions headed by a president, elected by the Legislative Assembly and nominated by the. In 2014 Spain broke its own record of blue flag beaches, achieving 681 flags and becoming the leader in the Northern Hemisphere. Spain needed every hand it could take during the seemingly endless wars of the eighteenth century—the Spanish War of Succession or Queen Anne's War (1702–13), the War of Jenkins' Ear (1739–42) which became the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48), the Seven Years' War (1756–63) and the Anglo-Spanish War (1779–83)—and its new disciplined militias served around the Atlantic as needed. Apart from these main types, other sub-types can be found, like the alpine climate in areas with very high altitude, the humid subtropical climate in areas of northeastern Spain and the continental climates (Dfc, Dfb / Dsc, Dsb) in the Pyrenees as well as parts of the Cantabrian Range, the Central System, Sierra Nevada and the Iberian System, and a typical desert climate (BWk, BWh) in the zone of Almería, Murcia and eastern Canary Islands. The distribution of powers may be different for every community, as laid out in their Statutes of Autonomy, since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical. In the 19th and 20th centuries, science in Spain was held back by severe political instability and consequent economic underdevelopment. Muslim armies had also moved north of the Pyrenees but they were defeated by Frankish forces at the Battle of Poitiers, Frankia and pushed out of the very southernmost region of France along the seacoast by the 760s. The Spanish administration approved the Gender Equality Act in 2007 aimed at furthering equality between genders in Spanish political and economic life. In Spain there are over forty professional orchestras, including the Orquestra Simfònica de Barcelona, Orquesta Nacional de España and the Orquesta Sinfónica de Madrid. Besides the Perejil Island, the Spanish-held territories claimed by other countries are two: Morocco claims the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla and the plazas de soberanía islets off the northern coast of Africa. The "Disaster" of 1898 led established writers to seek practical political, economic, and social solutions in essays grouped under the literary heading of Regeneracionismo. [88][89] On 1 April 1939, five months before the beginning of World War II, the rebel side led by Franco emerged victorious, imposing a dictatorship over the whole country. Major opera houses include the Teatro Real, the Gran Teatre del Liceu, Teatro Arriaga and the El Palau de les Arts Reina Sofía. [269] Typical of the north are the traditional bag pipers or gaiteros, mainly in Asturias and Galicia. On 1 January 2002, Spain fully adopted the euro, and Spain experienced strong economic growth, well above the EU average during the early 2000s. In 2011 alone, more than half a million people left Spain. Vitoria-Gasteiz jazz festival is one of the main ones on its genre. Parts of the range have been included in the Sierra Nevada National Park. vegueria) both of which have administrative powers; comarques being aggregations of municipalities, and the vegueries being aggregations of comarques. Even as of May 2020, the country hasn’t specified any fixed date for reopening to foreign tourists, but has mentioned hotspots like Balearic and Canary Islands to be the first to open. The research departments of the museum are: Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Ecology, Paleobiology, Vulcanology and Geology.[36]. Under Islamic law, Christians and Jews were given the subordinate status of dhimmi. The number of foreigners (i.e. Heracles later renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, Espan, from whom the country of España (Spain) took its name. On the northeast, along the Pyrenees mountain range, it is bordered by France and Andorra. [268] Both festivals mark Spain as an international music presence and reflect the tastes of young people in the country. Ideal growing conditions, combined with proximity to important north European markets, made citrus fruits Spain's leading export. In Catalonia, two additional divisions exist, the comarques (sing. [1] Indice The arrival of the gitanos, a Romani people, began in the 16th century; estimates of the Spanish Roma population range from 750,000 to over one million. The unification of the crowns of Aragon and Castile by the marriage of their sovereigns laid the basis for modern Spain and the Spanish Empire, although each kingdom of Spain remained a separate country socially, politically, legally, and in currency and language.[72][73]. Spanish explorers brought back precious metals, spices, luxuries, and previously unknown plants, and played a leading part in transforming the European understanding of the globe. Throughout the remainder of the 16th century and into the 17th century, the convent attracted young widowed or spinster noblewomen. [224], According to the Spanish government there were 5.7 million foreign residents in Spain in 2011, or 12% of the total population. St. Augustine became a strategic defensive base for Spanish ships full of gold and silver sailing to Spain. [citation needed], Spanish cinema has also seen international success over the years with films by directors like Segundo de Chomón, Florián Rey, Luis García Berlanga, Carlos Saura, Julio Medem, Isabel Coixet, Alejandro Amenábar, Icíar Bollaín and brothers David Trueba and Fernando Trueba. [106], A Catalan independence referendum was held on 1 October 2017 and then, on 27 October, the Catalan parliament voted to unilaterally declare independence from Spain to form a Catalan Republic[107][108] on the day the Spanish Senate was discussing approving direct rule over Catalonia as called for by the Spanish Prime Minister. The Crown of Aragon and the Kingdom of Navarre have historically extended on both sides of the mountain range, with small northern portions now in France and much larger southern parts now in Spain.[24][25]. [70] The Spanish explorer Blas Ruiz intervened in Cambodia's succession and installed Crown Prince Barom Reachea II as puppet.[71]. Each municipality is allowed to declare a maximum of 14 public holidays per year; up to nine of these are chosen by the national government and at least two are chosen locally. [21] The word in question (compare modern Hebrew Shafan) actually means "Hyrax", possibly due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. The Spanish–American War was fought in the spring of 1898 and resulted in Spain losing the last of its once vast colonial empire outside of North Africa. [57] St. Vincent Ferrer converted innumerable Jews, among them the Rabbi Josuah Halorqui, who took the name of Jerónimo de Santa Fe and in his town converted many of his former coreligionists in the famous Disputation of Tortosa (1413–14). Sierra Nevada in Spain is a popular tourist destination, as its high peaks make skiing possible in one of Europe's most southerly ski resorts, in an area along the Mediterranean Sea predominantly known for its warm temperatures and abundant sunshine. [175] In 2010 Spain became the solar power world leader when it overtook the United States with a massive power station plant called La Florida, near Alvarado, Badajoz. After World War II Spain was politically and economically isolated, and was kept out of the United Nations. Areas relying on non-irrigated cultivation (secano), which made up 85% of the entire crop area, depended solely on rainfall as a source of water. The airport of Barcelona (El Prat) is also important, with 35 million passengers in 2011, being the world's 31st-busiest airport. [166], In 2010, the Basque city of Bilbao was awarded with the Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize,[167] and its mayor at the time, Iñaki Azkuna, was awarded the World Mayor Prize in 2012. The famous Don Quijote de La Mancha by Miguel de Cervantes was written in this time. Apart from paintings and sculptures it displays 10th-century Byzantine enamel; Arab and Byzantine ivory chests; Hellenistic, Roman, medieval, renaissance, baroque and romantic jewelry; Pisanello and Pompeo Leoni medals; Spanish and Italian ceramics; Italian and Arab clothes and a collection of weapons including the sword of Pope Innocent VIII. Team Car No. During the Second Republic there was a great political and social upheaval, marked by a sharp radicalization of the left and the right. [261] However the Jewish Encyclopedia states the number over 800,000 to be too large and 235,000 as too small: 165,000 is given as expelled as possibly too small in favour or 200,000, and the numbers of converts after the 1391 pogroms as less. The civil war was viciously fought and there were many atrocities committed by all sides. Like the other Balearic Islands of Menorca, Ibiza, and Formentera, the island is an extremely popular holiday destination, particularly for tourists from Germany, Ireland, Poland, the Scandinavian countries, and the United Kingdom. The Spanish Supertouring Championship (Campeonato de España de Turismos) is Spain's national motorsport series for touring cars.It was established in 1966 and its drivers' title has been held by such notable drivers as Double ETCC and champion Fabrizio Giovanardi, local idols Luis Villamil, Jordi Gene and formers F1 driver Luis Pérez-Sala and Adrian Campos. An important philosopher from this time is Ramon Llull. His main works were the upper stalls of the choir of the Cathedral of Toledo, the tomb of Cardinal Tavera in the same Cathedral, and the altarpiece of the Visitation in the church of Santa Úrsula in the same locality. [113], On 31 January 2020, the COVID-19 virus was confirmed to have spread to Spain. In the early modern period, Spain ruled one of the largest empires in history which was also one of the first global empires, spawning a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes over 570 million Hispanophones,[14] making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. Because of the changed diet of an increasingly affluent population, there was a notable increase in the consumption of livestock, poultry, and dairy products. [citation needed], Protestant churches have about 1,200,000 members. Depending on the nature of the crop, it was possible to harvest two successive crops in the same year on about 10% of the country's irrigated land. [citation needed], Contemporary philosophers include Fernando Savater and Adela Cortina, creator of the term aporophobia. The red of the top floors with the green of the wall next to it form a contrast. Napoleon's troops entered the country to invade Portugal but instead occupied Spain's major fortresses. [214][215] The identity of Spain rather accrues of an overlap of different territorial and ethnolinguistic identities than of a sole Spanish identity. Castile and Leon is the Spanish leader in rural tourism linked to its environmental and architectural heritage. The Suebi established a kingdom in what is today modern Galicia and northern Portugal whereas the Vandals established themselves in southern Spain by 420 before crossing over to North Africa in 429 and taking Carthage in 439. The vegetation of Spain is varied due to several factors including the diversity of the relief, the climate and latitude. [144][145], The Spanish claim makes a distinction between the isthmus that connects the Rock to the Spanish mainland on the one hand, and the Rock and city of Gibraltar on the other. The peninsula of Vélez de la Gomera is also regarded as a plaza de soberanía. Major destinations include Spain's two largest cities: Madrid and Barcelona, which stand as two of the leading city destinations in Europe. Alcalá de Henares, Ávila, Baeza, Cáceres, Córdoba, Cuenca, Ibiza, Mérida, Salamanca, San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Santiago de Compostela, Segovia, Tarragona, Toledo and Ubeda. After the Pyrenees, the main mountain ranges are the Cordillera Cantábrica (Cantabrian Range), Sistema Ibérico (Iberian System), Sistema Central (Central System), Montes de Toledo, Sierra Morena and the Sistema Bético (Baetic System) whose highest peak, the 3,478-metre-high (11,411-foot) Mulhacén, located in Sierra Nevada, is the highest elevation in the Iberian Peninsula. The constitution also specifies that Spain has no state religion and that all are free to practice and believe as they wish. The Berbers soon gave up attempting to settle the harsh lands in the north of the, For the related expulsions that followed see. According to residence permit data for 2011, more than 860,000 were Romanian, about 770,000 were Moroccan, approximately 390,000 were British, and 360,000 were Ecuadorian. The Generation of 1914 or Novecentismo. España es uno de los principales destinos turísticos del mundo, gracias a los diversos atractivos que posee nuestro país. In 1469, the crowns of the Christian kingdoms of Castile and Aragon were united by the marriage of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon. [36], Córdoba, the capital of the caliphate since Abd-ar-Rahman III, was the largest, richest and most sophisticated city in western Europe. There are more than 200,000 migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa living in Spain, principally Senegaleses and Nigerians. There have been four Spanish Popes. In 2015 Spain was the 8th largest automobile producer country in the world and the 2nd largest car manufacturer in Europe after Germany. Muslims imported a rich intellectual tradition from the Middle East and North Africa. In June 1976, Spain's new King Juan Carlos dismissed Carlos Arias Navarro and appointed the reformer Adolfo Suárez as Prime Minister. Only two communities—the Basque Country and Navarre—have full fiscal autonomy. The largest groups inhabiting the Iberian Peninsula before the Roman conquest were the Iberians and the Celts. Spain also includes the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea, the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean and a number of uninhabited islands on the Mediterranean side of the Strait of Gibraltar, known as plazas de soberanía ("places of sovereignty", or territories under Spanish sovereignty), such as the Chafarinas Islands and Alhucemas. This period saw the Italian Wars, the Schmalkaldic War, the Dutch Revolt, the War of the Portuguese Succession, clashes with the Ottomans, intervention in the French Wars of Religion and the Anglo-Spanish War.[74]. Ministers (designated by the Prime Minister). Roman Catholicism, which has a long history in Spain, remains the dominant religion. Franco's rule was also characterised by authoritarianism, promotion of a unitary national identity, National Catholicism, and discriminatory language policies. Mount Teide (Tenerife) is the highest mountain peak in Spain and is the third largest volcano in the world from its base. Spain has a number of descendants of populations from former colonies, especially Latin America and North Africa. Certainly the most famous masterpiece in the museum is Picasso's painting Guernica. The collection includes, in addition to numerous works of Joaquín Sorolla, a large number of objects that possessed the artist, including sculptures by Auguste Rodin.[43]. Vitoria-Gasteiz was awarded with the European Green Capital in 2012 after implementing good practices by the Agenda 21 and recovering Salburua wetland, protected by Ramsar Convention and Natura 2000 and a part of Green Belt of Vitoria-Gasteiz, funded partially with The LIFE Programme. It is the largest island in the Balearic Islands archipelago, in Spain. The Spanish Civil War broke out in 1936: on 17 and 18 July, part of the military carried out a coup d'état that triumphed in only part of the country. [176][177] Spain is also Europe's main producer of wind energy. The Monastery of Las Descalzas Reales resides in the former palace of King Charles I of Spain and Isabel of Portugal. [29], The cultures of the Celtic and Iberian populations were gradually Romanised (Latinised) at different rates depending on what part of Hispania they lived in, with local leaders being admitted into the Roman aristocratic class. The most popular traditional musical instrument, the guitar, originated in Spain. The other official languages of Spain, co-official with Spanish are: As a percentage of the general population of all Spain, Spanish is natively spoken by 74%, Catalan by 17%, Galician by 7% and Basque by 2% of all Spaniards. Artists such as Benito Pérez Galdós, Emilia Pardo Bazán, Leopoldo Alas (Clarín), Concepción Arenal, Vicente Blasco Ibáñez and Menéndez Pelayo created Realist artworks. [21], Napoleon was forced to intervene personally, defeating several Spanish armies and forcing a British army to retreat. [260], The recent waves of immigration have also led to an increasing number of Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs and Muslims. Spain claims Gibraltar, a 6-square-kilometre (2.3 sq mi) Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom in the southernmost part of the Iberian Peninsula. The fauna presents a wide diversity that is due in large part to the geographical position of the Iberian peninsula between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and between Africa and Eurasia, and the great diversity of habitats and biotopes, the result of a considerable variety of climates and well differentiated regions. [112], On 1 June 2018, the Congress of Deputies passed a motion of no-confidence against Rajoy and replaced him with the PSOE leader Pedro Sánchez. [citation needed], Joaquín Sorolla is a well-known modern impressionist painter and there are many important Spanish painters belonging to the modernism art movement, including Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dalí, Juan Gris and Joan Miró. The Berber people of North Africa, who had provided the bulk of the invading armies, clashed with the Arab leadership from the Middle East.

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